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Federal Probation Journal - December 1998

Federal Probation Journal (December 1998) is dedicated to informing its readers about current thought, research, and practice in corrections and criminal justice. Explore the issue.

This Issue in Brief

We are pleased to welcome as a member of Federal Probation’s advisory committee the Honorable David D. Noce, magistrate judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.

Judge Noce, a magistrate judge since 1976, served as chief magistrate judge from 1989 to 1997. He holds a law degree from the University of Missouri-Columbia. His previous experience includes teaching business law in college and serving as a legal officer in the United States Army. He also worked as a law clerk for two district judges of the federal district court in St. Louis and as an assistant United States attorney, prosecuting federal criminal cases.

Judge Noce currently teaches a course on jury instructions at both St. Louis University School of Law and Washington University School of Law. He has served on the Judicial Conference Committee on Criminal Law and on the Circuit Council of the Eighth Circuit.

Karen S. Henkel

A Decade of Experimenting With Intermediate Sanctions: What Have We Learned?

By Joan Petersilia

Intensive supervision, home confinement, community service, boot camps, and day fines — these and other intermediate sanctions have been put forth in recent years as panaceas in corrections. Have they had an impact on program costs, recidivism, and prison crowding? Have they delivered what they promised? Author Joan Petersilia reviews what we have learned about intermediate sanctions after a decade of experience with them and how they have influenced current practice.

Electronic Monitoring: What Does the Literature Tell Us?

By Annesley K. Schmidt

Electronic monitoring (EM) has been available to corrections as a supervision tool for almost 20 years. During that time, much has been written about EM in journals, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, and other sources. Author Annesley K. Schmidt offers a review of the EM literature, which ranges in scope from discussion of equipment, to program descriptions and evaluations, to commentaries on the technology, to explanation of laws and regulations.

When an Employee Dies: Managing the Aftermath of a Critical Incident

By Mark J. Maggio, Loren A.N. Buddress

Unforeseen tragedy—be it an act of nature, a terrorist action, or the sudden death of an employee—may strike any organization at any time. How well organizations prepare for these “critical incidents” may determine how well they cope with them. Authors Mark J. Maggio and Loren A.N. Buddress explain the wisdom of instituting a critical incident response policy and tell how the probation office in the Northern District of California responded to the violent and unexpected death of its PC systems administrator.

Organizational Probation Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines

By .Gary S. Green

Probation as a criminal sanction for organizations was codified into federal law in 1991, when the U.S. Sentencing Commission added Chapter 8 to the sentencing guidelines. Author Gary S. Green discusses the legal background for organizational probation and offers an analysis of Sentencing Commission data on 271 organizations sentenced under Chapter 8 from 1993 through 1996. He describes the types of organizations, their offense types, and their sentences.

Operation Spotlight: The Community Probation-Community Police Team Process

By Harold B. Wooten, Herbert J. Hoelter

Authors Harold B. Wooten and Herbert J. Hoelter describe the Community Probation-Community Police Team Process, called Operation Spotlight, that the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives developed to focus the investigative and supervision services of police and probation systems on at-risk offenders who are already in the community. They discuss the importance of probation and police agencies sharing information about these offenders and of engaging local citizens and community resources in the process.

A Continuum of Sanctions for Substance Abusing Offenders

By Sam Torres

Author Sam Torres presents a continuum of community-based sanctions to use whenever offenders violate their special drug aftercare condition. Violations that lend themselves to these sanctions include failures to report for drug testing, stalls, providing diluted specimens, and positive alcohol and drug tests. The sanctions range from a mild verbal admonishment to placement in an intensive residential drug treatment program. The strategy presented is based on the tenet that offenders must be held accountable for their decision to use drugs.

The Impact of Treatment: The Jefferson County (Kentucky) Drug Court Program

By Gennaro F. Vito, Richard A. Tewksbury

Authors Gennaro F. Vito and Richard A. Tewksbury present the results of an impact evaluation of the Jefferson County Drug Court Program. The research revealed that African American defendants were most likely to complete the program successfully, drug court graduates—compared to nongraduates and a comparison group—had the lowest rate of reconviction, and program completion was the best predictor of success. The results support the conclusion of other studies that treatment programs can effectively reduce recidivism rates.

What Do We Know About Anger Management Programs in Corrections?

By Pamela Stiebs Hollenhorst

This article explores the content, application, effectiveness, and propriety of anger management programs and concludes that such programs merit additional study to maximize their potential for preventing violence. Author Pamela Stiebs Hollenhorst focuses on anger management programs in correctional settings in Madison, Wisconsin, and distinguishes between anger management and domestic violence prevention programs.

Correctional Officer Stress: A Cause for Concern and Additional Help

By Peter Finn

Author Peter Finn addresses an important concern—correctional officer stress. He examines the pervasiveness and the severity of it and summarizes research about what causes this stress and what effects it has on officers and institutions. A review of selected efforts to help prevent and treat correctional officer stress also is offered. The article is based on a review of the literature and on interviews with correctional officers and administrators.

Successful Mentoring in a Correctional Environment

By Peter M. Wittenberg

A mentor can help the new employee mature and succeed—in corrections just as in other jobs. What is the link between the organization, the mentor, and the protégé? Author Peter M. Wittenberg tells about his own experiences with mentors in his correctional career. He describes the mentor-protégé relationship and the mentor’s traits and responsibilities. He also addresses choosing a mentor, establishing a formal mentor program, and ending a mentoring relationship.

“Up to Speed”—Exploring the Implications of Four Sanctioning Orientations for Community Corrections

By M. Kay Harris

“Looking at the Law”—The Imposition of Restitution in Federal Criminal Cases

By Catharine M. Goodwin

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