Volume 69 Number 1
Federal Probation

Bridging the Gap Between Theory And Practice—A Call to Action

Improving the Employment Rates of Ex-Prisoners Under Parole

Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty: The Clinical and Legal Legacy

Electronic Monitoring: Positive Intervention Strategies

Prison Chapel Volunteers

Bridging the Gap Between Theory And Practice—A Call to Action

Buysee, V., Sparkman, K.L. & Wesley, P.W. (2003). Communities of practice: Connecting what we know with what we do. Exceptional Children. 69, pp. 263-277.

Cohn, A.W. (2002). Managing the correctional enterprise—The quest for ‘what works.’ Federal Probation, 66, pp. 4-9.

Gendreau, P., French, S.A., & Gionet, A. (2004). What works (what doesn’t work): The principles of effective correctional treatment. Journal of Community Corrections, 13, pp. 4-30.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO, 2000). Root cause analysis in health care: Tools and techniques. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

Latessa, E.J., Cullen, F.T., & Gendreau, P. (2002). Beyond correctional quackery—Professionalism and the possibility of effective treatment. Federal Probation, 66, pp. 43-49.

Lowenkamp, C. & Latessa, E. (2002). Evaluation of community based correctional facilities. Report submitted to the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction.

Mabry, A., K.G. Sperber, & Atkins, H.A. (2003) Putting an outcomes-based quality improvement program in place. Journal of Community Corrections, 13, pp. 15-17.

Raines, J.C. (2004). Evidence-based practice in school social work: A process in perspective. Children and Schools, 26, pp. 71-85.

Sexton, T.L. (2003). Functional family therapy: An evidence-based family focused clinical model for working with at-risk adolescents and their families. Project presented at the International Community Corrections Association annual meeting, Indianapolis, IN: November.

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Improving the Employment Rates of Ex-Prisoners Under Parole

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2003). Probation and Parole in the United States, 2002 NCJ 2011135. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (1993). Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991 NCJ-136949. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999). Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997. NCJ 172871. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2000). Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997. NCJ 177613. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2002). Civilian Unemployment Rates 1950-2000. Retrieved June 11, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy02/sheets/b42.xls

Burris, D., Forest, G., Elbert, M., Doherty, P., & Baerga, M (2004). The Correlation Between Employment, Education, and Recidivism. News and Views. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Pretrial and Probation Services. Administrative Division of the United States Courts.

Ditton, P. M (1999) Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers. Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice.

Harer, M.D (1994). Recidivism Among Federal Prisoners Released in 1987. Retrieved July 2, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bop.gov/orepg/oreprrecid87.pdf

Langan, P.A. & Levin, David J (2002). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Office of Justice Programs (2004). Reentry. Retrieved June 10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ reentry/learn.html.

Piehl, A.M. Learning While Doing Time (1994). Kennedy School Working Paper #R94-25, Harvard University.

Rand Corporation (2003). Prisoner Reentry: What Are the Public Health Challenges?

Retrieved July 8, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB6013/RB6013.pdf

Seiter, R.P (2002). Prisoner Reentry and the Role of Parole Officers. Federal Probation. 66(3), pp. 50-54.

Steurer, S.J., Smith, L. & Tracy, A (2001). Three State Recidivism Study. Retrieved July 2, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ceanational.org/documents/3StateFinal.pdf.

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Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty: The Clinical and Legal Legacy

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 122 S. Ct. 2242 (2002).

American Psychiatric Association. (1980; 1987; 1994; 2000). Mental Retardation. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (III, III-R, IV, IVTR), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, 41-49.

Baxstrom v. Herold , 383 US 107, 1966.

Braddock, D. (1981). Deinstitutionalization of the Retarded. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32, 607-615.

Brantlinger, E. (1995). Sterilization of People with Mental Disabilities: Issues, Perspectives, and Cases. Westport, CT: Auburn House.

Broderick, R. (1980). Mental Retardation and the Law. Washington, DC: President’s Com-mission on Mental Retardation.

Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200, 205. No. 292 US Supreme Ct., 1927.

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, 84 S.Ct. 468 (Sup. Ct. 1985).

Dixon v. Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 325 F. Supp. 966. 1971.

EAHCA (1975). The Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142).

Fancher, R. (1985). The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

French, L.A. (1994). The Winds of Injustice. New York, NY: Garland.

___(1987). Boundary Maintenance and Capital Punishment. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 5, 423-432.

___(1986a). Minority and Mentally Retarded: Double Stigma by School Labeling. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 14, 213-216.

___(1986b). Mainstreaming the Mentally Retardation: A Dilemma for the Law. Legal Studies Forum, X, 215-228.

___(1986c). MR Testing and Evaluation. Psychology in the Schools, 23, 64-76.

___(1986d). Treatment Rights of the Mentally Retarded: The Cost of Refusal. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 4 (3), 315-325.

___(1983). The Mentally Retarded and Pseudo-retarded Offender: A Clinical/Legal Dilemma. Federal Probation, XXXXVI (3), 55-61.

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238, 345 (1972).

French, L.A., & B. deOca. (2001).The Neuro-psychology of Impulse Control: New Insights into Violent Behaviors. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 16 (2), 25-32.

Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences. London, England: Macmillan.

Gilfoyle, N. (2005). Juvenile death penalty. Monitor on Psychology, 36 (2), 46.

Gregg v. Georgia , 428 U.S. 153, 237-241 (1976).

Halderman v. Pennhurst State School and Hospital , 336 F. Supp. 1295 (E.D. Pa. 1977), 612 F. 2d 84 (3d Cir. 1979), 49 U.S.C.W. 4363 (Sup. Ct. 1981).

Jurek v. Texas , 428 U.S. 262, 96 S. Ct. 2950 (1976).

Larry P. v. Riles 343 F Supp 1308 (N.D. Cal. 1972) Preliminary Injunction.

___502 F ed 963 (Cir. 1974) Affirmed.

___No C-71-2270 REP (N.D. Cal. 1979) Opinion Issued.

___no 80-4027 (Cir. 1984).

Larson, E. (1995). Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Luckasson, R. (ed.). (1992). Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Support. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Macklin, R. N. (1981). Mental Retardation and Sterilization: A Problem of Competency and Paternalism. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Polirstok, S. (2001). Buck v. Bell: A Case Study. Binghamton Journal of History. http://history.binghampton.edu/resources/bjoh/BuckvsBell.htm.

Proffit v. Florida, 428 U.A. 242, 252 (1976).

Public Law 94-142 The Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

Reilly, P. (1991). The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Roper v. Simmons (No. 03-0633). Supreme Court decision handed down on March 1, 2005.

Simonton, D.K. (2003). Francis Galton’s Hereditary Genius: Its place in the history and psychology of Science. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), The anatomy of impact: What makes the great works of psychology great (pp. 3-18). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Steadman, H., & Keveles, G. (1972). The Community Adjustment and Criminal Activity of the Baxstrom Patients, 1966-1970. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 80-86.

Steinberg, L., & Scott, E.S. (2003). Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence: Developmental Immaturity, Diminished Responsibility, and the Juvenile Death Penalty, American Psychologist, 58, 1009-1018.

Sofair, A.N., and Kaldjian, L.C. (2000). Eugenic sterilization and a qualified Nazi analogy: The United States and Germany, 1930-1945. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132 (4), 312-319.

Terman, L.M. (1916). The Measurement of Intelligence. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Thornberry, T., & Jacoby, J. (1979). The Criminally Insane: A Community follow-up of Mentally Ill Offenders. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Wyatt v. Stickney, 325 F. Supp. 781 (M.D. Ala. 1971), 334 F. Supp. 1341. (1971), 344 F. Supp. 373, and 344 F. Supp. 385 (1972).

Wyatt v. Aderholt, 503 F. 2d 1305 (1974).

Youngberg v. Romeo, 102 S. Ct. 2452 (1982).

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Electronic Monitoring: Positive Intervention Strategies

Akers, R. L. and Sellers, C. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application (4th edit). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.

Attewell, J., and Savill-Smith, C. (2004). Mobile learning and social inclusion: Focusing on learners and learning. In J. Attewell and C. Savill-Smith (eds.) Learning with Mobile Devices (pp. 3-10). London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.

Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., and Rooney, J. (1999). Electronic Monitoring in Canada. Ottawa: Solicitor General’s Office, Public Works and Government Services (Cat No. JS4-1/1999-01).

Cohn, A. W. (2003). Chicken Little says the sky may be falling! Journal of Offender Monitoring 16(2): 2-4.

Connelly, L. (1999, Oct.13). Implementing effective offender supervision practices and programming: Electronic monitoring. (Hand-out materials for an APPA audio conference). Lexington, KY: American Probation and Parole Assn.

Crowe, A. H., Sydney, L., Bancroft, P., and Lawrence, B. (2002). Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology. Lexington, KY: American Probation and Parole Assn.

Cullen, F. T., and Gendreau, P. (1989). The effectiveness of correctional rehabilitation: Reconsidering the nothing works debate. In L. Goodstein and D. MacKenzie (eds.), American Prisons: Issues in Research and Policy (pp. 23-44). New York, NY: Plenum.

Erez, E., and Ibarra, P. R. (2004). Electronic monitoring of domestic violence cases—A study of two bilateral programs. Federal Probation 68(1): 15-20.

Erwin, B. (1990). Old and new tools for the modern probation officer. Crime and Delinquency 36(1): 61-75.

Finn, M. A., and Muirhead-Steves, S. (2002). The effectiveness of electronic monitoring with violent male parolees. Justice Quarterly 19(2); 293-312.

Ford, D., and Schmidt, A. K. (1985, November). Electronically monitored home confinement. NIJ (National Institute of Justice) Reports, 2-6.

Gable, R. K. (1986). Application of personal telemonitoring to current problems in corrections. Journal of Criminal Justice 14: 167-176.

Glaser, D., and Watts, R. (1992). Electronic monitoring of offenders on probation. Judicature 76(3): 112-117.

Harvard Law Review (1966). Anthropotelemetry: Dr. Schwitzgebel’s machine. 80: 403-421.

Hofer von, H. (2000, May). Notes on crime and punishment in Sweden and Scandinavia. Paper presented at 115 th International Training Course. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. Online: http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no57/57-21.pdf.

Jackson, J. L., DeKeijser, J. W., and Michon, J. A. (1995). A critical look at research on alternatives to custody. Federal Probation 59(3): 43-51.

John Howard Society (2000). Electronic Monitoring. Edmonton, Alberta: John Howard Society of Alberta. Online: http://www.johnhoward.ab.ca/PUB/A3.htm.

Jones, A. (2005). A tagging tale: The work of the monitoring officer, electronically monitoring offenders in England and Wales. Surveillance & Society 2(4): 581-588.

Lilly, J. R., Ball, R. A., Curry, G. D., and McMullen, J. (1993). Electronic monitoring of the drunk driver: A seven-year study of the home confinement alternative. Crime and Delinquency 39(4): 462-484.

MacKenzie, D. L., and De Li, S. (2002). The impact of formal and informal social controls on the criminal activities of probationers. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 39(3): 243-276.

Mainprize, S. (1996). Elective affinities in the engineering of social control: The evolution of electronic monitoring. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Online: http://collection.nic-bnc.ca/100/201/300/ejofsociology/2003/v07n03/ mainprize.html.

National Probation Service (2005). Total electronic monitoring caseloads and latest monthly new starts as at 28 February 2005. Online: http//www.probation.homeoffice.gov.uk/output/Page137asp#Statistics.

Papy, J., and Nimer, R. (1991). Electronic monitoring in Florida. Federal Probation 55(1): 31-33.

Petersilia, J., and Turner, S. (1992). An evaluation of intensive probation in California. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 82(3): 610-658.

Renzema, M., and Mayo-Wilson, E. (2005, in press). Can electronic monitoring reduce crime for moderate to high-risk offenders? Journal of Experimental Criminology 1: 1-23.

Re-Entry Policy Council (2004). Charting the Safe and Successful Return of Prisoners to the Community. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments.

Roy , S. (1997). Five years of electronic monitoring of adults and juveniles in Lake County, Indiana: A comparative study on factors related to failure. Journal of Crime and Justice 20(1): 141-160.

San Mateo County (2005). Electronic Monitoring Program. Sheriff’s Office, Custody Division, San Mateo County (CA). Online: http://www.co.sanmateo.ca.us/smc/department/home/0,,14095463_14132044_59181929,00.html.

Schmidt, A. K. (1988). The Use of Electronic Monitoring by Criminal Justice Agencies. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice [22 page report].

Schwitzgebel, R. K. (1965). Streetcorner Research: An Experimental Approach to the Juvenile Delinquent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schwitzgebel, R. K., Schwitzgebel, R. L., Pahnke, W. N, and Hurd, W. S. (1964). A program of research in behavioral electronics. Behavioral Science 9(3): 233-238.

Schwitzgebel, R. L. (1969, April). A belt from big brother. Psychology Today 2: 45-47.

Schwitzgebel, R. L., and Bird, R. M. (1970). Sociotechnical design factors in remote instrumentation with humans in natural environments. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 2(3): 99-105.

Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Smith, P., Goggin, C., and Gendreau, P. (2002). The Effects of Prison Sentences and Inter-mediate Sanctions on Recidivism: General Effects and Individual Differences. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services, Solicitor General’s office (Cat No. JS42-103/2002) [47 page report].

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online (2005). Persons under jail supervision (Table 6.14, year 2003). Online: http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/wk1/t614.wk1.

Sugg, D., Moore, L., and Howard, P. (2001). Electronic monitoring and offending behaviour—reconviction results for the second year of trials of curfew orders. Findings #141. London: Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office.

Wilson, J., and Howell J. C. (1993). A Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

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Prison Chapel Volunteers

Coleman, J. (2003). “Chaplains: God’s partners in prison.” Corrections Today, 65(7), pp. 122-125).

Friedman, G. (2003). Chaplaincy: Face new and old challenges. Corrections Today, 65 (5), pp. 90-91.

Glaser, D. (1964). The effectiveness of a prison and parole system. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

Harrison , P.M. and Karberg, J.C. (2004). Prison and Jail Inmates at Mid-Year 2003. Washing-ton, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Rogers, P. E. (2003). Correctional chaplains: Calming the storms of life for staff and inmates. Corrections Today, 65(1), p. 77

Sundt, J. L. & Cullen, F. T. (1998). The role of the contemporary prison chaplains. The Prison Journal 78, pp. 271-298.

Sundt, J. L. & Cullen, F. T. (2002). The correctional ideology of prison chaplains: A national survey. Journal of Criminal Justice 30, pp. 369-385.

Tewksbury , R. & Dabney, D. (2004). Prison volunteers: Profiles, motivations, satisfaction. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 40 (1/2), pp. 173-183.

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