Volume 77 Number 1
Federal Probation



Overcoming Legal Barriers to Reentry: A Law School-Based Approach to Providing Legal Services to the Reentry Community

American Bar Association (1992). Report on the task force of law schools and the profession: Narrowing the gap.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Brennan, E. (1998). Fathers in prison: A review of the data. Philadelphia, PA: National Center on Fathers and Families.

Buhai, S.L. (2009). Access to justice for unrepresented litigants: A comparative analysis. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 42(4), 979–1019.

Cordray, M.M. (2011). Expanding pro bono’s role in legal education. Idaho Law Review, 48, 29–47.

Fishman, N. L. (2006). Legal barriers to prisoner reentry in New Jersey. New Jersey Institute for Social Justice.

Horvath, A. O., & Luborsky, L. (1993). The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 561–573.

Legal Action Center (2004). After prison: Roadblocks to reentry.

Lewis, P. (2007). Litigants in person and their difficulties in adducing evidence: A study of small claims in an English county court. International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 11, 24–48.

May, B. (1995). The character component of occupational licensing laws: A continuing barrier to the ex-felon’s employment opportunity. North Dakota Law Review, 71, 187–206.

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Norcross, J. C. (Ed.). (2011). Psychotherapy relationships that work. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Pearson, J., & Davis, L. (2001). Serving parents who leave prison: Final report on the work and family center. Denver, CO: Center for Policy Research.

Petersilia, J. (2003). When prisoners come home: Parole and prisoner reentry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rhode, D. (2004). Connecting principles to practice. Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 17, 369–422.

Seron, C., Frankel, M., Van Ryzin, G., & Kovath, J. (2001). The impact of legal counsel on outcomes for poor tenants in New York City’s housing court: Results of a randomized experiment. Law and Society Review, 35(2), 419–434.

Skeem, J., Eno Louden, J., Polaschek, D., & Camp, J. (2007). Assessing relationship quality in mandated community treatment: Blending care with control. Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 397–410.

State v. Feintuch, 150 N.J. Super. 414, 422 (N.J. App. Div. 1977).

Sullivan, W. M., Colby, A., Wegner, J. W., Bond, L., & Shulman, L. S. (2007). Educating lawyers: Preparation for the profession of law. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Thoennes, N. (2002). Child support profile: Massachusetts’ incarcerated and paroled parents. Denver, CO: Center for Policy Research.

Thompson, A. C. (2004). Navigating the hidden obstacles to offender reentry. Boston College Law Review, 45, 255–306.

Travis, J., Solomon, A.L., & Waul, M. (2001). From prison to home: The dimensions and consequences of prisoner reentry. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Trotter, C. (1996). The impact of different supervision practices in community corrections. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 29(1), 29–46.

Turner v. Rodgers, 131 S. Ct. 2507, 2516–2517 (2011).

Udell, D., & Diller, R. (2007). Access to justice: Opening the courthouse door. New York, NY: Brennan Center for Justice.

Viets, V.L., Walker, D., & Miller, W.R. (2002). What is motivation to change: A scientific analysis. In Mary McMurran (Ed.), Motivating Offenders to Change: A Guide to Enhancing Engagement in Therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2011). Life on the outside: Returning home after incarceration. The Prison Journal, Supp. to 91(3), 102S–119S.

Western, B., Kling, J.R., & Weiman, D.F. (2001). The labor market consequences of incarceration. Crime and Delinquency, 47, 410–417.

Western, B., & Pettit, B. (2010). Incarceration and social inequality. Daedalus, 139(8), 8–19.

Wilson, W.J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Zimmerman, K., & Fishman, N. (2001). Roadblock on the way to work: Driver’s license suspension in New Jersey. Newark, NJ: New Jersey Institute for Social Justice.

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Policy Implications of Police-Probation/Parole Partnerships: A Review of the Empirical Literature

Adelman, S. E. (2002). U.S. v. Knights: Supreme Court rules on searches of probationers by police. The Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association: Perspectives, 26(3), 39–43.

Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Hoge, R. D. (1990). Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17(1), 19–52.

Anonymous (1999). Enhanced supervision programs: Police/probation/parole partnerships. Alternatives to Incarceration, 5(3), 14–18.

Benekos, P. J., & Merlo, A. V. (2006). Crime control: Politics & policy (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Braga, A. A. (2008a). Gun violence among serious young offenders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Braga, A. A. (2008b). Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and prevention of gun homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36(4), 332–343.

Braga, A. A., Kennedy, D. M., Waring, E. J., & Piehl, A. M. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(3), 195–225.

Braga, A. A., Piehl, A. M., & Hureau, D. (2009). Controlling violent offenders released to the community: An evaluation of the Boston reentry initiative. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(4), 411–436.

Braga, A. A., Pierce, G. L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B. J., & Cronin, S. (2008). The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 25(1), 132–162.

Bureau of Justice Assistance (2007). Building an offender reentry program: A guide for law enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Bureau of Justice Assistance (1997). East Bay Public Safety Corridor Partnership: A voluntary regional collaboration in northern California. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Byrne, J. M., & Hummer, D. (2004). Examining the role of police in recent partnership initiatives. Federal Probation, 68(2), 62–69.

Carter, M. M., Bumby, K., Gavin, F., Stroker, R., & Woodward, W. (2005). Collaboration: A training curriculum to enhance the effectiveness of criminal justice teams: Instruction manual. Alexandria, VA: State Justice Institute.

Condon, C. D. (2003). Falling crime rates, rising caseload numbers: Using police-probation partnerships. Corrections Today, 65(1), 44–49.

Corbett, R. P. (1998). Probation blue? The promise (and perils) of probation-police partnerships. Corrections Management Quarterly, 2(3), 31–39.

Corbett, R. P., Fitzgerald, B. L., & Jordan, J. (1998). Operation Night Light: An emerging model for police-probation partnership. In J. Petersilia, Community Corrections: Probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Decker, S. H. (2008). Strategies to address gang crime: A guidebook for local law enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

DeMichele, M. T. (2008). Probation and parole’s growing caseloads and workload allocation: Strategies for managerial decision making. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments, American Probation and Parole Association.

DeMichele, M. T., & Matz, A. K. (2012). APPA’s C.A.R.E. model: A framework for collaboration, analysis, reentry, and evaluation: A response to street gang violence (1st ed.). Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments, American Probation and Parole Association.

DeMichele, M. T., & Matz, A. K. (2010). Responding to gang violence: APPA’s C.A.R.E. model. The Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association: Perspectives, 34(4), 34–41.

DeMichele, M. T., & Payne, B. (2008). Probation and parole officers speak out: Caseload and workload allocation. Federal Probation, 71(3), 30–35.

DeMichele, M. T., Payne, B., & Matz, A. K. (2011). Community supervision workload considerations for public safety. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments, American Probation and Parole Association.

Durlauf, S. N., & Nagin, D. S. (2011). Imprisonment and crime: Can both be reduced? Criminology & Public Policy, 10(1), 13–54.

Evans, D. G. (1997). Boston’s probation and police partnership. Corrections Today, 59(4), 126, 130–131.

Feder, L., Jolin, A., & Feyerherm, W. (2000). Lessons from two randomized experiments in criminal justice settings. Crime & Delinquency, 46(3), 380–400.

Giacomazzi, A. L., & Smithey, M. (2001). Community policing and family violence against women: Lessons learned from a multiagency collaborative. Police Quarterly, 4(1), 99–122.

Giblin, M. J. (2002). Using police officers to enhance the supervision of juvenile probationers: An evaluation of the Anchorage CAN program. Crime & Delinquency, 48(1), 116–137.

Jannetta, J., & Lachman, P. (2011). Promoting partnerships between police and community supervision agencies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Jones, M. A., & Sigler, R. T. (2002). Law enforcement partnership in community corrections: An evaluation of juvenile offender curfew checks. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30(3), 245–256.

Jordan, J. T. (1998). Boston’s Operation Night Light. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 67(8), 1–5.

Jucovy, L., & McClanahan, W. S. (2008). Reaching through the cracks: A guide to implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.

Katz, J., & Bonham, G. (2009). Effective alternatives to incarceration: Police collaborations with corrections and communities. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Kennedy, D. M. (1997). Pulling levers: Chronic offenders, high-crime settings, and a theory of prevention. Valparaiso University Law Review, 31(2), 449–484.

Kennedy, D. M., Braga, A. A., & Piehl, A. M. (2001). Reducing gun violence: The Boston Gun Project’s Operation Ceasefire: Developing and implementing Operation Ceasefire. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Kim, B., Gerber, J., & Beto, D. R. (2010). Listening to law enforcement officers: The promises and problems of police-adult probation partnerships. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 625–632.

Langan, P., & Levin, D. (2002). Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2006). A theory of persistent offending and desistance from crime. In F. T. Cullen, & R. Agnew, Criminological theory: Past to present: Essential readings (3rd ed., pp. 522-536). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Looman, J., Dickie, I., & Abracen, J. (2005). Responsivity issues in the treatment of sexual offenders. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(4), 330–353.

Lowe, N. C., Dawson-Edwards, C., Minor, K. I., & Wells, J. B. (2008). Understanding the decision to pursue revocation of intensive supervision: A descriptive survey of juvenile probation and aftercare officers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46(3), 137–169.

Malcan, D. (1997). Portsmouth probation, parole and law enforcement: Combining resources to prevent crime. The Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association: Perspectives, 21(4), 26–28.

Marion, N. E., & Oliver, W. M. (2012). The public policy of crime and criminal justice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Matz, A. K. (2012). Community corrections procurement guide with bid specifications. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments, American Probation and Parole Association.

Matz, A. K. Lowe, N. C., & DeMichele, M. T. (2011). Gangs and guns a threat to public safety: Introducing APPA’s C.A.R.E. model. Journal of Community Corrections, 20(3), 9–10, 16–29.

McClanahan, W. S. (2004). Alive at 25: Reducing youth violence through monitoring and support. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.

McGarrell, E. F., Hipple, N. K., Corsaro, N., Bynum, T. S., Perez, H., Zimmerman, C.A., et al. (2009). Project Safe Neighborhoods: A national program to reduce gun crime. School of Criminal Justice. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

McKay, B., & Paris, B. (1998). Forging a police-probation alliance. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 67(11), 27–33.

Minetti, P. G., & Malcan, D. (1997). Hampton police collaborate with probation and parole for safer communities. The Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association: Perspectives, 21(4), 20–21.

Minor, K. I., & Matz, A. K. (2012). Boston’s Operation Night Light. In S. M. Barton-Bellessa (ed.), Encyclopedia of Community Corrections (pp. 28–30). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Pathways in the life course to crime. In F. T. Cullen & R. Agnew, Criminological theory: Past to present: Essential readings (3rd ed., pp. 502–521). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Murphy, D., & Lutze, F. (2009). Police-probation partnerships: Professional identity and the sharing of coercive power. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(1), 65–78.

Murphy, D., & Worrall, J. L. (2007). The threat of mission distortion in police-probation partnerships. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30(1), 132–149.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2002). OJJDP comprehensive gang model: A guide to assessing your community’s youth gang problem. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T. L., & Fagan, J. (2007). Attention felons: Evaluating project safe neighborhoods in Chicago. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 4(2), 223–272.

Parent, D., & Snyder, B. (1999). Police-
corrections partnerships
. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Peak, K. J., & Glensor, R. W. (1999). Community policing and problem solving: Strategies and practices (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pew Center on the States (2009). One in 31: The long reach of American corrections. Washington, D.C.: Pew Charitable Trusts.

Pew Center on the States (2011). State of recidivism: The revolving door of America’s prisons. Washington, D.C.: Pew Charitable Trusts.

Rinehart, T. A., Laszlo, A. T., & Briscoe, G. O. (2001). Collaboration toolkit: How to build, fix, and sustain productive partnerships. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., & Baumer, E. (2005). Did Ceasefire, Compstat, and Exile reduce homicide? Criminology & Public Policy, 4(3), 419–450.

Samaha, J. (2002). Criminal procedure (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Taxman, F. S., Young, D., & Byrne, J. M. (2003). Offender’s views of reentry: Implications for processes, programs, and services. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Taylor-Powell, E., Rossing, B., & Geran, J. (1998). Evaluating collaboratives: Reaching the potential. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Extension, Cooperative Extension.

Taylor-Powell, E., Steele, S., & Douglah, M. (1996). Planning a program evaluation. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Division of Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation Unit. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evaldocs.html.

United States v. Knights, 534 U.S. 112 (2001).

Wodahl, E. J., & Garland, B. (2009). The evolution of community corrections: The enduring influence of the prison. The Prison Journal, 89(1), 81–104.

Wooten, H. B. (1998). Operation spotlight: The community probation-community police team process. Federal Probation, 62(2), 30–36.

Worrall, J. L., & Gaines, L. K. (2006). The effect of police-probation partnerships on juvenile arrests. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(6), 579–589.

Wright, K. A., & Rosky, J. W. (2011). Too early is too soon: Lessons from the Montana Department of Corrections early release program. Criminology & Public Policy, 10(4), 881–908.

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Community Management of Offenders: The Interaction of Social Support and Risk

Alarid, L. F., Burton, V. S., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). Gender and crime among felony offenders: Assessing the generality of social control and differential association theories. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 171–199.

Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2007). Risk–need–
responsivity model for offender assessment and rehabilitation
(2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 39.

Bales, W. & Mears, D. (2008). Inmate social ties and the transition to society. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45, 287–321.

Bersani, B.E., Laub, J. & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2009). Marriage and desistance from crime in the Netherlands: Do gender and socio-historical context matter? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25 (1).

Bocknek, E.L., Sanderson, J., Britner, P.A. (2009). Ambiguous loss and posttraumatic stress in school-age children of prisoners. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18 (2009), 323–333.

Bottoms, A.E. (2001). Compliance and community penalties, in A. Bottoms, L. Gelsthorpe and S. Rex (Eds.) Community penalties: Change and challenges. Cullompton: Willan.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Broner, N., Lang, M. & Behler, S. A. (2009). The effect of homelessness, housing type, functioning, and community reintegration supports on mental health court completion and recidivism. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 5:3–4, 323–356.

Burnett, R., & McNeill, F. (2005). The place of the officer-offender relationship in helping the offender to desist from crime. Probation Journal, 52, 221–242.

Chen, X. (2009). The link between juvenile offending and victimization: The influence of risky lifestyles, social bonding, and individual characteristics. Juvenile Justice, 7(2), 119–135.

Clear, T. R., Waring, E., & Scully, K. (2005). Communities and reentry: Concentrated reentry cycling. In J. Travis & C. Visher (Eds.), Prisoner reentry and crime in America (pp. 179–208). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cobbina, J; Huebner, B., and Berg, M. (2010). Men, women, and post release offending: An examination of the nature of the link between relational ties and recidivism. published online 18 October 2010, DOI: 10.1177/0011128710382348.

Codd, H. (2005). Integrating Empirical Research: Prisoners’ Rights, the Law and the Family, paper presented at the WG Hart Legal Workshop, University of London, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.

Copello, A. & Orford, J. (2002). Alcohol and the family: is it time for services to take notice of the evidence? Addiction, 97, 1361–1363.

Liddle, H.A. (2004). Family-based therapies for adolescent alcohol and drug use: Research contributions and future research needs. Addiction, 99, 76–92.

Crowe, A.H., Sydney, L., DeMichele, M., Keilitz, S., Neal, C., Frohman, S., Schaefer, W.M. Jr., Thomas, M. (2009). Community corrections response to domestic violence: Guidelines for practice, American Probation and Parole Association, funded by The Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice.

Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organising concept for criminology: Presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly 11 (4): 527–560.

Cullen, F., & Agnew, R. (2003). Criminological theory: Past to present. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

Farrall, S. (2004). Supervision, motivation and social context: What matters most when probationers desist?, in G. Mair (Ed.) What Matters in Probation. Cullompton: Willan.

Farrall, S. and Sparks, R. (2006). Introduction to special Issue on problems, prospects and possibilities for life after punishment, Criminology and Criminal Justice 6(1): 7–17.

Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1993). Criminal, penal, and life histories of chronic offenders: Risk and protective factors and early identification. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 3, 492-523.

Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. M. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 24.

Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34, 575–607.

Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 990–1064.

Glaze, L., & Maruschak, L. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children. Washington DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Griffin, M. L., & Armstrong, G. S. (2003). The effect of local life circumstances on female probationers’ offending. Justice Quarterly, 20, 213–240.

Halpern, D. (2005). Social capital. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Hanson, R. K., Harris, A. J. R., Scott, T. L., & Helmus, T. (2007). Assessing the risk of sexual offenders on community supervision: The Dynamic Supervision Project (Research Report No. 2007-05). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Corrections Research, Public Safety Canada.

Hawkins, E. (2009). A tale of two systems: Co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders treatment for adolescents, Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 197–227.

Hochstetler, A.; DeLisi, M. & Pratt, T. (2010). Social support and feelings of hostility among released inmates. Crime & Delinquency, 56.

Hubble, M.; Duncan, B. & Miller, S (Eds.) (1999). The Heart and Soul of Change: What Works in Therapy. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.

Kozar, C. & Day, A. (2012). The therapeutic alliance in offending behavior programs: A necessary and sufficient condition for change? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(5), 482–487.

Laub, J. H. & Sampson, R. J. (2001). Understanding Desistance from Crime. University of Chicago.

Laub, J. & Sampson, R. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 7. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Liddle, H.A. (2004). Family-based therapies for adolescent alcohol and drug use: Research contributions and future research needs. Addiction, 99, 76–92.

Lykken, D. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Maguire, M. & Raynor, P. (2006). How the resettlement of prisoners promotes desistance from crime: Or does it? Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6, 1, 19–38.

Maguire, M. & Raynor, P. (2010). Putting the OM into NOMS: Problems and possibilities for offender management. In J. Brayford, F. Crowe and J. Deering (Eds.), What Else Works? Creative Work with Offenders. London: Willan, pp. 236–253.

Mallik-Kane, K., & Visher, C. A. (2008). Health and prisoner reentry: How physical, mental, and substance abuse conditions shape the process of reintegration. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Marshall, W.L. & Serran, G.A. (2004). The role of therapist in offender treatment. Psychology, Crime and Law 10(3): 309–20.

Maruna, S., & Toch, H. (2005). The impact of imprisonment on the desistance process. In J. Travis & C. Visher (Eds.), Prisoner reentry and crime in America (pp. 139–178). New York: Cambridge University Press.

McCulloch, P. (2005). Probation, social context and desistance: Retracing the relationship. Probation Journal 52(1): 8–22.

McLewin, L. A., & Muller, R. T. (2006). Attachment and social support in the prediction of psychopathology among young adults with and without a history of physical maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30, 171–191.

McNeill, F. (2006). A desistance paradigm for offender management. Criminology and Criminal Justice 6(1): 39–62.

McNeill, F. (2009). Probation, rehabilitation and reparation. In: 2nd Annual Martin Tansey Memorial Lecture, 2009-05-01, Dublin.

McNeill, F., Batchelor, S., Burnett, R. & Knox, J. (2005). 21st century social work: Reducing reoffending: Key Skills. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.

Meadows, S. (2007). Evidence of parallel pathways: Gender similarity in the impact of social support on adolescent depression and delinquency. Social Forces 85(3): 1143–1167.

Melde, C., & Esbensen, F.-A. (2012). Gangs and violence: Disentangling the impact of gang membership on the level and nature of offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Online publication. Doi:10.1007/s10940-012-9164-z

Mills, A. and Codd, H. (2008). Prisoners’ families and offender management: Mobilizing social capital. Probation Journal: The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice, 55(1), 9–24.

Murray, J. (2005). The effects of imprisonment on families and children of prisoners, in A. Liebling and S. Maruna (Eds.), The effects of imprisonment (pp. 442–92). Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Murray, J., Farrington, D. P., & Sekol, I. (2012). Children’s antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 175–210.

Peters, R., & Wexler, H.K. (2005). Substance abuse treatment for adults in the criminal justice system. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44.

Phillips, S.D. & J. Zhao. (2010). The relationship between witnessing arrest and elevated symptoms of posttraumatic stress: Findings from a national study of children involved in the child welfare system. Children and Youth Services Review, 32: 1246–1254.

Pratt, T. C., & Godsey, T. W. (2003). Social support, inequality, and homicide: A cross-national test of an integrated theoretical model. Criminology, 41, 101–133.

Rex, S. (1999). Desistance from Offending: Experiences of Probation. Howard Journal 38 (4): 366–83.

Robinson, G. & McNeill, F. (2008, Nov.). Exploring the dynamics of compliance with community penalties. Theoretical Criminology, 12(4), 431–449.

Rocque, M., Bierie, D., Posick, C. & MacKenzie, D. (2013). Unraveling social change: Social bonds and recidivism among released offenders, Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy and Practice, 8(2): 209–230.

Sampson, R.J. & Laub, J.H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge: Harvard University.

Schoon, I. & Bynner, J. (2003). Risk and resilience in the life course: Implications for interventions and social policies. Journal of Youth Studies 6, 21–31.

Schreck, C. & Fisher, B. (2004). Specifying the influence of family and peers on violent victimization: Extending routine activities and lifestyle theories. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19:1021–41.

Schreck, C.; Stewart, E. & Fisher, B. (2006). Self-control, victimization, and their influence on risky lifestyles: A longitudinal analysis using panel data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22:319–40.

Smith, D. (2004). The uses and abuses of positivism, in G. Mair (Ed.) What matters in probation. Cullompton: Willan.

Tatman A. W., Love, K. M. (2010). An offender version of the Working Alliance Inventory–Short Revised. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49, 165–179. doi:10.1080/10509671003666560

Thornton, D. (2002). Constructing and testing a framework for dynamic risk assessment. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14, 137-151.

Ward, T., & Maruna, S. (2007). Rehabilitation: Beyond the risk assessment paradigm. London, UK: Routledge.

Wilson, R. J.; Cortoni, F., & McWhinnie, A. J. (2009). Circles of support & accountability: A Canadian national replication of outcome findings. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21(4), 412–430.

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Creating a Supervision Tool Kit: How to Improve Probation and Parole

Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: Anderson.

Bonta, J., Bourgon, G., Rugge, T., Scott, T. L., Yessine, A. K., Gutierrez, L., & Li, J. (2011). An experimental demonstration of training probation officers in evidence-based community supervision. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 1127–1148.

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Officer Stress Linked to CVD: What We Know

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Ramey, S. L., Downing, N.R., Franke, W.D., Perkounkova, Y., Alasagheirin, M.H. (2012, January). Relationships among stress measures, risk factors, and inflammatory biomarkers in law enforcement officers. Biological Resource for Nursing, 14(1): 16–26. Web.

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Zimmerman, F.H., Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in law enforcement personnel: A comprehensive review. Cardiology in Review. 2012 Jul–Aug; 20(4): 159–66. Web.

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