Anniversary of the Federal Court System
Anniversary Marks Creation of Federal Court System
September 24 is the anniversary of a groundbreaking American innovation – a federal court system separate from the individual state courts.
The Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 was one of the first pieces of legislation enacted by the newly formed U.S. Congress. The law created a dual court system – federal and state – that existed in no other country at the time. Some 224 years later, the system remains a vibrant protector of the rights and liberties guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.
Today, the Federal Judiciary closely resembles the three-tiered system Congress fashioned in 1789. The modern-day Supreme Court is comprised of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate justices. Congress also has created 13 Courts of Appeals and 94 District Courts.
Supreme Court Justices and Federal Judges who hear cases in these courts, take an oath that they will perform all of their judicial duties under the Constitution and the laws of the United States. This oath is very meaningful to Judges, many of whom have taken great risks to uphold the rule of law.